Computer-Aided Instruction


The use   of computers to teach academic skills and to promote communication and   language development and skills.


Parent-Implemented Interventions


Parents   learn to implement strategies and activities in the child’s natural   environments (at home and in the community through a structured parent   training program.


Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)


Developed   by the Delaware Autistic Program (DAP) to teach young children to communicate   in a social context,  PECS consists of  six phases of instruction, each building   upon each other.  Simply explained,   PECS involves the exchanging pictures of items for the tangible, actual item.   It has also been used to modify negative behaviors.


Social Narratives

Social stories


Social   narratives describe social situations and offer  examples of appropriate responses.  By highlighting cues, social narratives help   learners adjust to changes in routine and adapt their behaviors based on the   situation. They can be used to teach specific social skills, communication   skills, or behaviors. Social narratives are individualized according to   learner needs and typically are quite short, perhaps including pictures or   other visual aides.


Speech Generating Devices/VOCA


Speech   generating devices (SGD) are electronic devices that are portable in nature   and can produce either synthetic or digital speech for the user. SGD may be   used with graphic symbols, as well as with alphabet keys. A variety of skills   can be targeted for intervention, including initiation, expressive language   (verbal), joint attention/gestures (non-verbal), and pragmatics (conversation   skills). Reading and math skills can also be addressed using SGD.


Structured Work Systems


Structured   work systems are an element of structured teaching that emphasizes visual   supports that are used to increase and maximize independent functioning and   reduce the frequent need for teacher correction and reprimand. An individual   work system is defined as a visually organized space where learners   independently practice skills that have been previously mastered under the   direct supervision of an adult and are frequently used for academic tasks, as   well as vocational tasks. A work system visually communicates at least four   pieces of information to learners: (1) the tasks they are supposed to do, (2)   how much work there is to be completed, (3) how learners know they are   finished, and (4) what to do when finished.


Task Analysis


Task   analysis is the process of breaking a skill into smaller, more manageable   steps in order to teach the skill. Other practices, such as reinforcement,   video modeling, or time delay, can be used to facilitate acquisition of the   smaller steps. As smaller steps are mastered, learners become more   independent in performing more complex, including physical or routine (e.g.,   self-care, work tasks) tasks, as well as academic, behavior, communication,   play, social and transition related skills.


Time Delay


Time   delay focuses on fading the use of prompts during instructional activities   and has been demonstrated to be effective with skills in the academic,   communication, play and social domains. A brief delay is provided between the   initial instruction and any additional instructions or prompts. With   progressive time delay, teachers and other practitioners gradually increase   the waiting time between an instruction and any prompts that might be used to   elicit a response. With constant time delay, a fixed amount of time is always   used between the instruction and the prompt as learners become more   proficient at using the new skill.


Video Modeling


Video   modeling uses video recording and display equipment to provide a visual model   of the targeted behavior or skill (typically in the behavior, communication,   play or social domains). Types of video modeling include basic video   modeling, video self-modeling, point-of-view video modeling, and video   prompting. Basic video modeling involves recording someone other than the   learner engaging in the target behavior or skill. The video is then viewed by   the learner at a later time. Video self-modeling is used to record the   learner displaying the target skill or behavior and is reviewed later.   Point-of-view video modeling is when the target behavior or skill is recorded   from the perspective of the learner. Video prompting involves breaking the   behavior skill into steps and recording each step with incorporated pauses   during which the learner may attempt the step before viewing subsequent   steps. Video prompting may be done with either the learner or someone else   acting as a model.


Visual Supports


Visual   supports are any tool presented visually that supports an individual as he or   she moves through the day and are applicable to many skill domains. Visual   supports might include, but are not limited to, pictures, written words,   objects within the environment, arrangement of the environment or visual   boundaries, schedules, maps, labels, organization systems, timelines, and   scripts. They are used across settings to support individuals with ASD.



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